pyrocko.gf.seismosizer¶
High level synthetic seismogram synthesis.
Coordinate systems¶
Coordinate system names commonly used in source models.
Name 
Description 


northing, easting, depth in [m] 

northing, easting in [m] 

latitude, longitude in [deg] 

longitude, latitude in [deg] 

latitude, longitude in [deg], depth in [m] 
Classes

Boxcar type source time function. 

A pure CLVD point source. 
Mixin class for Guts objects, providing dictlike access and cloning. 


Composite source model. 

A doublecouple point source. 

Two doublecouple point sources separated in space and time. 

Base class for synthetic seismogram calculators. 

An isotropic explosion point source. 

Undocumented. 

Undocumented. 

Half sinusoid type source time function. 

Offline synthetic seismogram calculator. 

A moment tensor point source. 

Undocumented. 

Excess pore pressure line source. 

Excess pore pressure point source. 

Undocumented. 

Combined Eikonal and Okada quasidynamic rupture model. 

Convenient range specification. 

Rectangular or line explosion source. 

Classical Haskell source model modified for bilateral rupture. 

Client for remote synthetic seismogram calculator. 

Synthetic seismogram computation request. 

Simple resonator like source time function. 

Resonse object to a synthetic seismogram computation request. 

A ring fault with vertical doublecouples. 

A single force point source. 

Base class for source time functions. 

Any 

Smoothramp type source time function for nearfield displacement. 

Base class for all source models. 

Undocumented. 

Undocumented. 

Undocumented. 

Undocumented. 

Base class for sources containing a moment magnitude. 

Oszillating source time function. 

Triangular type source time function. 

Volumetric linear vector dipole source. 
Exceptions
Raised when conversion between magnitude, moment, volume change or displacement failed. 

Raised, when a default store would be used but none is set. 
 exception NoDefaultStoreSet[source]¶
Bases:
Exception
Raised, when a default store would be used but none is set.
 class Range(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
SObject
Convenient range specification.
Equivalent ways to sepecify the range [ 0., 1000., … 10000. ]:
Range('0 .. 10k : 1k') Range(start=0., stop=10e3, step=1e3) Range(0, 10e3, 1e3) Range('0 .. 10k @ 11') Range(start=0., stop=10*km, n=11) Range(0, 10e3, n=11) Range(values=[x*1e3 for x in range(11)])
Depending on the use context, it can be possible to omit any part of the specification. E.g. in the context of extracting a subset of an already existing range, the existing range’s specification values would be filled in where missing.
The values are distributed with equal spacing, unless the
spacing
argument is modified. The values can be created offset or relative to an external base value with therelative
argument if the use context supports this.The range specification can be expressed with a short string representation:
'start .. stop @ num  spacing, relative' 'start .. stop : step  spacing, relative'
most parts of the expression can be omitted if not needed. Whitespace is allowed for readability but can also be omitted.
 ♦ start¶
float
, optional
 ♦ stop¶
float
, optional
 ♦ step¶
float
, optional
 ♦ n¶
int
, optional
 ♦ values¶
numpy.ndarray (
pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), optional
 ♦ spacing¶
str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:'lin'
 ♦ relative¶
str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:''
 class GridDefElement(shorthand=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Object
Undocumented.
 ♦ param¶
str
(pyrocko.gf.meta.StringID
)
 class GridDef(shorthand=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Object
Undocumented.
 ♦ elements¶
list
ofGridDefElement
objects, default:[]
 class Cloneable[source]¶
Bases:
object
Mixin class for Guts objects, providing dictlike access and cloning.
 class BoxcarSTF(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
STF
Boxcar type source time function.
 ♦ duration¶
float
, default:0.0
duration of the boxcar
 ♦ anchor¶
float
, default:0.0
anchor point with respect to source.time: (1.0: left > source duration [0, T] ~ hypocenter time, 0.0: center > source duration [T/2, T/2] ~ centroid time, +1.0: right > source duration [T, 0] ~ rupture end time)
 class TriangularSTF(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
STF
Triangular type source time function.
 ♦ duration¶
float
, default:0.0
baseline of the triangle
 ♦ peak_ratio¶
float
, default:0.5
fraction of time compared to duration, when the maximum amplitude is reached
 ♦ anchor¶
float
, default:0.0
anchor point with respect to source.time: (1.0: left > source duration [0, T] ~ hypocenter time, 0.0: center > source duration [T/2, T/2] ~ centroid time, +1.0: right > source duration [T, 0] ~ rupture end time)
 class HalfSinusoidSTF(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
STF
Half sinusoid type source time function.
 ♦ duration¶
float
, default:0.0
duration of the halfsinusoid (baseline)
 ♦ anchor¶
float
, default:0.0
anchor point with respect to source.time: (1.0: left > source duration [0, T] ~ hypocenter time, 0.0: center > source duration [T/2, T/2] ~ centroid time, +1.0: right > source duration [T, 0] ~ rupture end time)
 ♦ exponent¶
int
, default:1
set to 2 to use square of the halfperiod sinusoidal function.
 class SmoothRampSTF(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
STF
Smoothramp type source time function for nearfield displacement. Based on moment function of doublecouple point source proposed by [1].
 ♦ duration¶
float
, default:0.0
duration of the ramp (baseline)
 ♦ rise_ratio¶
float
, default:0.5
fraction of time compared to duration, when the maximum amplitude is reached
 ♦ anchor¶
float
, default:0.0
anchor point with respect to source.time: (1.0: left > source duration
[0, T]
~ hypocenter time, 0.0: center > source duration[T/2, T/2]
~ centroid time, +1.0: right > source duration[T, 0]
~ rupture end time)
 class ResonatorSTF(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
STF
Simple resonator like source time function.
 ♦ duration¶
float
, default:0.0
decay time
 ♦ frequency¶
float
, default:1.0
resonance frequency
 class TremorSTF(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
STF
Oszillating source time function.
 ♦ duration¶
float
, default:0.0
Tremor duration [s]
 ♦ frequency¶
float
, default:1.0
Frequency [Hz]
 class STFMode(...) str [source]¶
Bases:
StringChoice
Any
str
out of['pre', 'post']
.
 class Source(**kwargs)[source]¶

Base class for all source models.
 ♦ name¶
str
, optional, default:''
 ♦ time¶
pyrocko.util.get_time_float (
pyrocko.guts.Timestamp
), default:str_to_time('19700101 00:00:00')
source origin time.
 ♦ stf_mode¶
str
(STFMode
), default:'post'
whether to apply source time function in pre or postprocessing.
 update(**kwargs)[source]¶
Change some of the source models parameters.
Example:
>>> from pyrocko import gf >>> s = gf.DCSource() >>> s.update(strike=66., dip=33.) >>> print(s)  !pf.DCSource depth: 0.0 time: 19700101 00:00:00 magnitude: 6.0 strike: 66.0 dip: 33.0 rake: 0.0
 grid(**variables)[source]¶
Create grid of source model variations.
 Returns:
SourceGrid
instance.
Example:
>>> from pyrocko import gf >>> base = DCSource() >>> R = gf.Range >>> for s in base.grid(R('
 base_key()[source]¶
Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.
 get_factor()[source]¶
Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).
 effective_stf_pre()[source]¶
Return the STF applied before stacking of the Green’s functions.
This STF is used during discretization of the parameterized source models, i.e. to produce a temporal distribution of point sources.
Handling of the STF before stacking of the GFs is less efficient but allows to use different source time functions for different parts of the source.
 effective_stf_post()[source]¶
Return the STF applied after stacking of the Green’s fuctions.
This STF is used in the postprocessing of the synthetic seismograms.
Handling of the STF after stacking of the GFs is usually more efficient but is only possible when a common STF is used for all subsources.
 class SourceWithMagnitude(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Source
Base class for sources containing a moment magnitude.
 ♦ magnitude¶
float
, default:6.0
Moment magnitude Mw as in [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]
 exception DerivedMagnitudeError[source]¶
Bases:
ValidationError
Raised when conversion between magnitude, moment, volume change or displacement failed.
 class SourceWithDerivedMagnitude(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Source
Undocumented.
 check_conflicts()[source]¶
Check for parameter conflicts.
To be overloaded in subclasses. Raises
DerivedMagnitudeError
on conflicts.
 class ExplosionSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
SourceWithDerivedMagnitude
An isotropic explosion point source.
 ♦ magnitude¶
float
, optionalmoment magnitude Mw as in [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]
 ♦ volume_change¶
float
, optionalvolume change of the explosion/implosion or the contracting/extending magmatic source. [m^3]
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedExplosionSource
 class RectangularExplosionSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
ExplosionSource
Rectangular or line explosion source.
 ♦ strike¶
float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north
 ♦ dip¶
float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal
 ♦ length¶
float
, default:0.0
length of rectangular source area [m]
 ♦ width¶
float
, default:0.0
width of rectangular source area [m]
 ♦ anchor¶
str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:'center'
Anchor point for positioning the plane, can be: top, center orbottom and also top_left, top_right,bottom_left,bottom_right, center_left and center right
 ♦ nucleation_x¶
float
, optionalhorizontal position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (1 = left edge, +1 = right edge)
 ♦ nucleation_y¶
float
, optionaldowndip position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (1 = upper edge, +1 = lower edge)
 ♦ velocity¶
float
, default:3500.0
speed of explosion front [m/s]
 ♦ aggressive_oversampling¶
bool
, default:False
Aggressive oversampling for basesource discretization. When using ‘multilinear’ interpolation oversampling has practically no effect.
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedExplosionSource
 class DCSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
SourceWithMagnitude
A doublecouple point source.
 ♦ strike¶
float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north
 ♦ dip¶
float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal
 ♦ rake¶
float
, default:0.0
rake angle in [deg], measured counterclockwise from righthorizontal in onplane view
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedMTSource
 class CLVDSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
SourceWithMagnitude
A pure CLVD point source.
 ♦ azimuth¶
float
, default:0.0
azimuth direction of largest dipole, clockwise from north [deg]
 ♦ dip¶
float
, default:90.0
dip direction of largest dipole, downward from horizontal [deg]
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedMTSource
 class VLVDSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
SourceWithDerivedMagnitude
Volumetric linear vector dipole source.
This source is a parameterization for a restricted moment tensor point source, useful to represent dyke or sill like inflation or deflation sources. The restriction is such that the moment tensor is rotational symmetric. It can be represented by a superposition of a linear vector dipole (here we use a CLVD for convenience) and an isotropic component. The restricted moment tensor has 4 degrees of freedom: 2 independent eigenvalues and 2 rotation angles orienting the the symmetry axis.
In this parameterization, the isotropic component is controlled by
volume_change
. To define the moment tensor, it must be converted to the scalar moment of the the MT’s isotropic component. For the conversion, the shear modulus at the source’s position must be known. This value is extracted from the earth model defined in the GF store in use.The CLVD part by controlled by its scalar moment :
clvd_moment
. The sign ofclvd_moment
is used to switch between a positiv or negativ CLVD (the sign of the largest eigenvalue). ♦ azimuth¶
float
, default:0.0
azimuth direction of symmetry axis, clockwise from north [deg].
 ♦ dip¶
float
, default:90.0
dip direction of symmetry axis, downward from horizontal [deg].
 ♦ volume_change¶
float
, default:0.0
volume change of the inflation/deflation [m^3].
 ♦ clvd_moment¶
float
, default:0.0
scalar moment of the CLVD component [Nm]. The sign controls the sign of the CLVD (the sign of its largest eigenvalue).
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedMTSource
 class MTSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Source
A moment tensor point source.
 ♦ mnn¶
float
, default:1.0
northnorth component of moment tensor in [Nm]
 ♦ mee¶
float
, default:1.0
easteast component of moment tensor in [Nm]
 ♦ mdd¶
float
, default:1.0
downdown component of moment tensor in [Nm]
 ♦ mne¶
float
, default:0.0
northeast component of moment tensor in [Nm]
 ♦ mnd¶
float
, default:0.0
northdown component of moment tensor in [Nm]
 ♦ med¶
float
, default:0.0
eastdown component of moment tensor in [Nm]
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedMTSource
 class RectangularSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
SourceWithDerivedMagnitude
Classical Haskell source model modified for bilateral rupture.
 ♦ magnitude¶
float
, optionalmoment magnitude Mw as in [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]
 ♦ strike¶
float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north
 ♦ dip¶
float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal
 ♦ rake¶
float
, default:0.0
rake angle in [deg], measured counterclockwise from righthorizontal in onplane view
 ♦ length¶
float
, default:0.0
length of rectangular source area [m]
 ♦ width¶
float
, default:0.0
width of rectangular source area [m]
 ♦ anchor¶
str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:'center'
Anchor point for positioning the plane, can be:
top, center bottom, top_left, top_right,bottom_left,bottom_right, center_left, center right
.
 ♦ nucleation_x¶
float
, optionalhorizontal position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (
1.
= left edge,+1.
= right edge)
 ♦ nucleation_y¶
float
, optionaldowndip position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (
1.
= upper edge,+1.
= lower edge)
 ♦ velocity¶
float
, default:3500.0
speed of rupture front [m/s]
 ♦ slip¶
float
, optionalSlip on the rectangular source area [m]
 ♦ opening_fraction¶
float
, default:0.0
Determines fraction of slip related to opening. (
1
: pure tensile closing,0
: pure shear,1
: pure tensile opening)
 ♦ decimation_factor¶
int
, optional, default:1
Subsource decimation factor, a larger decimation will make the result inaccurate but shorten the necessary computation time (use for testing puposes only).
 ♦ aggressive_oversampling¶
bool
, default:False
Aggressive oversampling for basesource discretization. When using ‘multilinear’ interpolation oversampling has practically no effect.
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedMTSource
 class PseudoDynamicRupture(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
SourceWithDerivedMagnitude
Combined Eikonal and Okada quasidynamic rupture model.
Details are described in Pseudo Dynamic Rupture  A stressbased selfsimilar finite source model. Note: attribute stf is not used so far, but kept for future applications.
 ♦ strike¶
float
, default:0.0
Strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north.
 ♦ dip¶
float
, default:0.0
Dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal.
 ♦ length¶
float
, default:10000.0
Length of rectangular source area in [m].
 ♦ width¶
float
, default:5000.0
Width of rectangular source area in [m].
 ♦ anchor¶
str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:'center'
Anchor point for positioning the plane, can be:
top, center, bottom, top_left, top_right, bottom_left, bottom_right, center_left, center_right
.
 ♦ nucleation_x¶
numpy.ndarray (
pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), default:array([0.])
Horizontal position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (
1.
= left edge,+1.
= right edge).
 ♦ nucleation_y¶
numpy.ndarray (
pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), default:array([0.])
Downdip position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (
1.
= upper edge,+1.
= lower edge).
 ♦ nucleation_time¶
numpy.ndarray (
pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), optionalTime in [s] after origin, when nucleation points defined by
nucleation_x
andnucleation_y
rupture.
 ♦ gamma¶
float
, default:0.8
Scaling factor between rupture velocity and Swave velocity: .
 ♦ nx¶
int
, default:2
Number of discrete source patches in x direction (along strike).
 ♦ ny¶
int
, default:2
Number of discrete source patches in y direction (down dip).
 ♦ slip¶
float
, optionalMaximum slip of the rectangular source [m]. Setting the slip the tractions/stress field will be normalized to accomodate the desired maximum slip.
 ♦ rake¶
float
, optionalRake angle in [deg], measured counterclockwise from righthorizontal in onplane view. Rake is translated into homogenous tractions in strike and updip direction.
rake
is mutually exclusive with tractions parameter.
 ♦ patches¶
list
ofpyrocko.modelling.okada.OkadaSource
objects, optionalList of all boundary elements/sub faults/fault patches.
 ♦ patch_mask¶
numpy.ndarray (
pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), optionalMask for all boundary elements/sub faults/fault patches. True leaves the patch in the calculation, False excludes the patch.
 ♦ tractions¶
pyrocko.gf.tractions.TractionField
, optionalTraction field the rupture plane is exposed to. See the
pyrocko.gf.tractions
module for more details. Iftractions=None
andrake
is givenDirectedTractions
will be used.
 ♦ coef_mat¶
numpy.ndarray (
pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), optionalCoefficient matrix linking traction and dislocation field.
 ♦ eikonal_decimation¶
int
, optional, default:1
Subsource eikonal factor, a smaller eikonal factor will increase the accuracy of rupture front calculation but increases also the computation time.
 ♦ decimation_factor¶
int
, optional, default:1
Subsource decimation factor, a larger decimation will make the result inaccurate but shorten the necessary computation time (use for testing puposes only).
 ♦ nthreads¶
int
, optional, default:1
Number of threads for Okada forward modelling, matrix inversion and calculation of point subsources. Note: for small/medium matrices 1 thread is most efficient.
 ♦ pure_shear¶
bool
, optional, default:False
Calculate only shear tractions and omit tensile tractions.
 ♦ smooth_rupture¶
bool
, default:True
Smooth the tractions by weighting partially ruptured fault patches.
 ♦ aggressive_oversampling¶
bool
, default:False
Aggressive oversampling for basesource discretization. When using ‘multilinear’ interpolation oversampling has practically no effect.
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedMTSource
 get_tractions()[source]¶
Get source traction vectors.
If
rake
is given, unit length directed traction vectors (DirectedTractions
) are returned, else the giventractions
are used. Returns:
Traction vectors per patch.
 Return type:
ndarray
:(n_patches, 3)
.
 get_scaled_tractions(store)[source]¶
Get traction vectors rescaled to given slip.
Opposing to
get_tractions()
traction vectors (DirectedTractions
) are rescaled to the givenslip
before returning. If noslip
andrake
are provided, the giventractions
are returned without scaling.
 get_magnitude(store=None, target=None)[source]¶
Get total seismic moment magnitude Mw.
 Parameters:
store (
Store
) – GF store to guide the discretization and providing the earthmodel which is needed to calculate moment from slip.target (
pyrocko.gf.targets.Target
) – Target, used to get GF interpolation settings.
 Returns:
Moment magnitude
 Return type:
 outline(cs='xyz')[source]¶
Get source outline corner coordinates.
 Parameters:
cs (str) – Output coordinate system.
 Returns:
Corner points in desired coordinate system.
 Return type:
ndarray
:(5, [2, 3])
.
 points_on_source(cs='xyz', **kwargs)[source]¶
Convert relative plane coordinates to geographical coordinates.
Given x and y coordinates (relative source coordinates between 1. and 1.) are converted to desired geographical coordinates. Coordinates need to be given as
ndarray
argumentspoints_x
andpoints_y
. Parameters:
cs (str) – Output coordinate system.
 Returns:
Point coordinates in desired coordinate system.
 Return type:
ndarray
:(n_points, [2, 3])
.
 pyrocko_moment_tensor(store=None, target=None)[source]¶
Get overall moment tensor of the rupture.
 Parameters:
store (
Store
) – GF store to guide the discretization and providing the earthmodel which is needed to calculate moment from slip.target (
pyrocko.gf.targets.Target
) – Target, used to get GF interpolation settings.
 Returns:
Moment tensor.
 Return type:
 discretize_time(store, interpolation='nearest_neighbor', vr=None, times=None, *args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Get rupture start time for discrete points on source plane.
 Parameters:
store (
Store
) – Green’s function database (needs to cover whole region of the source)interpolation (str) – Interpolation method to use (choose between
'nearest_neighbor'
and'multilinear'
).vr (
ndarray
) – Array, containing rupture user defined rupture velocity values.times (
ndarray
) – Array, containing zeros, where rupture is starting, real positive numbers at later secondary nucleation points and 1, where time will be calculated. If not given, rupture starts at nucleation_x, nucleation_y. Times are given for discrete points with equal horizontal and vertical spacing.
 Returns:
Coordinates (latlondepth), coordinates (xy), rupture velocity, rupture propagation time of discrete points.
 Return type:
ndarray
:(n_points, 3)
,ndarray
:(n_points, 2)
,ndarray
:(n_points_dip, n_points_strike)
,ndarray
:(n_points_dip, n_points_strike)
.
 get_vr_time_interpolators(store, interpolation='nearest_neighbor', force=False, **kwargs)[source]¶
Get interpolators for rupture velocity and rupture time.
Additional
**kwargs
are passed todiscretize_time()
. Parameters:
store (
Store
) – Green’s function database (needs to cover whole region of the source).interpolation (str) – Interpolation method to use (choose between
'nearest_neighbor'
and'multilinear'
).force (bool) – Force recalculation of the interpolators (e.g. after change of nucleation point locations/times). Default is
False
.
 discretize_patches(store, interpolation='nearest_neighbor', force=False, grid_shape=(), **kwargs)[source]¶
Get rupture start time and OkadaSource elements for points on rupture.
All source elements and their corresponding center points are calculated and stored in the
patches
attribute.Additional
**kwargs
are passed todiscretize_time()
. Parameters:
store (
Store
) – Green’s function database (needs to cover whole region of the source).interpolation (str) – Interpolation method to use (choose between
'nearest_neighbor'
and'multilinear'
).force (bool) – Force recalculation of the vr and time interpolators ( e.g. after change of nucleation point locations/times). Default is
False
.grid_shape (
tuple
ofint
) – Desired sub fault patch grid size (nlength, nwidth). Either factor or grid_shape should be set.
 discretize_basesource(store, target=None)[source]¶
Prepare source for synthetic waveform calculation.
 Parameters:
 Returns:
Source discretized by a set of moment tensors and times.
 Return type:
 get_slip(time=None, scale_slip=True, interpolation='nearest_neighbor', **kwargs)[source]¶
Get slip per subfault patch for given time after rupture start.
 Parameters:
time (float) – Time after origin [s], for which slip is computed. If not given, final static slip is returned.
scale_slip (bool) – If
True
andslip
given, all slip values are scaled to fit the given maximum slip.interpolation (str) – Interpolation method to use (choose between
'nearest_neighbor'
and'multilinear'
).
 Returns:
Inverted dislocations () for each source patch.
 Return type:
ndarray
:(n_sources, 3)
 get_delta_slip(store=None, deltat=None, delta=True, interpolation='nearest_neighbor', **kwargs)[source]¶
Get slip change snapshots.
The time interval, within which the slip changes are computed is determined by the sampling rate of the Green’s function database or
deltat
. Additional**kwargs
are passed toget_slip()
. Parameters:
store (
Store
) – Green’s function database (needs to cover whole region of of the source). Its sampling interval is used as time increment for slip difference calculation. Eitherdeltat
orstore
should be given.deltat (float) – Time interval for slip difference calculation [s]. Either
deltat
orstore
should be given.delta (bool) – If
True
, slip differences between two time steps are given. IfFalse
, cumulative slip for all time steps.interpolation (str) – Interpolation method to use (choose between
'nearest_neighbor'
and'multilinear'
).
 Returns:
Displacement changes() for each source patch and time; corner times, for which delta slip is computed. The order of displacement changes array is:
 Return type:
 get_slip_rate(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Get slip rate inverted from patches.
The time interval, within which the slip rates are computed is determined by the sampling rate of the Green’s function database or
deltat
. Additional*args
and**kwargs
are passed toget_delta_slip()
.
 get_moment_rate_patches(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Get scalar seismic moment rate for each patch individually.
Additional
*args
and**kwargs
are passed toget_slip_rate()
.
 get_moment_rate(store, target=None, deltat=None)[source]¶
Get seismic source moment rate for the total source (STF).
 Parameters:
store (
Store
) – Green’s function database (needs to cover whole region of of the source). Itsdeltat
[s] is used as time increment for slip difference calculation. Eitherdeltat
orstore
should be given.target (
Target
) – Target information, needed for interpolation method.deltat (float) – Time increment for slip difference calculation [s]. If not given
store.deltat
is used.
 Returns:
Seismic moment rate [Nm/s] for each time; corner times, for which moment rate is computed. The order of the moment rate array is:
 Return type:
 get_moment(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Get cumulative seismic moment.
Additional
*args
and**kwargs
are passed toget_magnitude()
. Returns:
Cumulative seismic moment in [Nm].
 Return type:
 rescale_slip(magnitude=None, moment=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Rescale source slip based on given target magnitude or seismic moment.
Rescale the maximum source slip to fit the source moment magnitude or seismic moment to the given target values. Either
magnitude
ormoment
need to be given. Additional**kwargs
are passed toget_moment()
.
 get_centroid(store, *args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Centroid of the pseudo dynamic rupture model.
The centroid location and time are derived from the locations and times of the individual patches weighted with their moment contribution. Additional
**kwargs
are passed topyrocko_moment_tensor()
. Parameters:
store (
Store
) – Green’s function database (needs to cover whole region of of the source). Itsdeltat
[s] is used as time increment for slip difference calculation. Eitherdeltat
orstore
should be given. Returns:
The centroid location and associated moment tensor.
 Return type:
 get_coulomb_failure_stress(receiver_points, friction, pressure, strike, dip, rake, time=None, *args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Calculate Coulomb failure stress change CFS.
The function obtains the Coulomb failure stress change at arbitrary receiver points with a commonly oriented receiver plane assuming:
with the shear stress , the coefficient of friction , the normal stress , and the pore fluid pressure change . Each receiver point is characterized by its geographical coordinates, and depth. The required receiver plane orientation is defined by
strike
,dip
, andrake
. The Coulomb failure stress change is calculated for a given time after rupture origin time. Parameters:
receiver_points (
ndarray
:(n_receiver, 3)
) – Location of the receiver points in Northing, Easting, and depth in [m].friction (float) – Coefficient of friction.
pressure (float) – Pore pressure change in [Pa].
strike (float) – Strike of the receiver plane in [deg].
dip (float) – Dip of the receiver plane in [deg].
rake (float) – Rake of the receiver plane in [deg].
time (float) – Time after origin [s], for which the resulting is computed. If not given, is derived based on the final static slip.
 Returns:
The Coulomb failure stress change at each receiver point in [Pa].
 Return type:
ndarray
:(n_receiver,)
 class DoubleDCSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
SourceWithMagnitude
Two doublecouple point sources separated in space and time. Moment share between the subsources is controlled by the parameter mix. The position of the subsources is dependent on the moment distribution between the two sources. Depth, east and north shift are given for the centroid between the two doublecouples. The subsources will positioned according to their moment shares around this centroid position. This is done according to their delta parameters, which are therefore in relation to that centroid. Note that depth of the subsources therefore can be depth+/delta_depth. For shallow earthquakes therefore the depth has to be chosen deeper to avoid sampling above surface.
 ♦ strike1¶
float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north
 ♦ dip1¶
float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal
 ♦ azimuth¶
float
, default:0.0
azimuth to second doublecouple [deg], measured at first, clockwise from north
 ♦ rake1¶
float
, default:0.0
rake angle in [deg], measured counterclockwise from righthorizontal in onplane view
 ♦ strike2¶
float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north
 ♦ dip2¶
float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal
 ♦ rake2¶
float
, default:0.0
rake angle in [deg], measured counterclockwise from righthorizontal in onplane view
 ♦ delta_time¶
float
, default:0.0
separation of doublecouples in time (t2t1) [s]
 ♦ delta_depth¶
float
, default:0.0
difference in depth (z2z1) [m]
 ♦ distance¶
float
, default:0.0
distance between the two doublecouples [m]
 ♦ mix¶
float
, default:0.5
how to distribute the moment to the two doublecouples mix=0 > m1=1 and m2=0; mix=1 > m1=0, m2=1
 ♦ stf1¶
STF
, optionalSource time function of subsource 1 (if given, overrides STF from attribute
Source.stf
)
 ♦ stf2¶
STF
, optionalSource time function of subsource 2 (if given, overrides STF from attribute
Source.stf
)
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedMTSource
 class RingfaultSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
SourceWithMagnitude
A ring fault with vertical doublecouples.
 ♦ diameter¶
float
, default:1.0
diameter of the ring in [m]
 ♦ sign¶
float
, default:1.0
inside of the ring moves up (+1) or down (1)
 ♦ strike¶
float
, default:0.0
strike direction of the ring plane, clockwise from north, in [deg]
 ♦ dip¶
float
, default:0.0
dip angle of the ring plane from horizontal in [deg]
 ♦ npointsources¶
int
, default:360
number of point sources to use
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedMTSource
 class CombiSource(subsources=[], **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Source
Composite source model.
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedMTSource
 class SFSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Source
A single force point source.
Supported GF schemes: ‘elastic5’.
 ♦ fn¶
float
, default:0.0
northward component of single force [N]
 ♦ fe¶
float
, default:0.0
eastward component of single force [N]
 ♦ fd¶
float
, default:0.0
downward component of single force [N]
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedSFSource
 class PorePressurePointSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Source
Excess pore pressure point source.
For poroelastic initial value problem where an excess pore pressure is brought into a small source volume.
 ♦ pp¶
float
, default:1.0
initial excess pore pressure in [Pa]
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedPorePressureSource
 class PorePressureLineSource(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Source
Excess pore pressure line source.
The line source is centered at (north_shift, east_shift, depth).
 ♦ pp¶
float
, default:1.0
initial excess pore pressure in [Pa]
 ♦ length¶
float
, default:0.0
length of the line source [m]
 ♦ azimuth¶
float
, default:0.0
azimuth direction, clockwise from north [deg]
 ♦ dip¶
float
, default:90.0
dip direction, downward from horizontal [deg]
 discretized_source_class¶
alias of
DiscretizedPorePressureSource
 class Request(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Object
Synthetic seismogram computation request.
Request(**kwargs) Request(sources, targets, **kwargs)
 ♦ targets¶
list
ofpyrocko.gf.targets.Target
objects, default:[]
list of targets for which to produce synthetics.
 class ProcessingStats(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Object
Undocumented.
 ♦ t_perc_get_store_and_receiver¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_perc_discretize_source¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_perc_make_base_seismogram¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_perc_make_same_span¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_perc_post_process¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_perc_optimize¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_perc_stack¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_perc_static_get_store¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_perc_static_discretize_basesource¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_perc_static_sum_statics¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_perc_static_post_process¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_wallclock¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ t_cpu¶
float
, default:0.0
 ♦ n_read_blocks¶
int
, default:0
 ♦ n_results¶
int
, default:0
 ♦ n_subrequests¶
int
, default:0
 ♦ n_stores¶
int
, default:0
 ♦ n_records_stacked¶
int
, default:0
 class Response(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Object
Resonse object to a synthetic seismogram computation request.
 ♦ results_list¶
list
oflist
ofpyrocko.gf.meta.SeismosizerResult
objects objects, default:[]
 ♦ stats¶
 kite_scenes()[source]¶
Return a list of requested
kite.Scene
instances.
 static_results()[source]¶
Return a list of requested
StaticResult
instances.
 class OutOfBoundsContext(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Object
Undocumented.
 ♦ target¶
 ♦ distance¶
float
 ♦ components¶
list
ofstr
objects, default:[]
 class LocalEngine(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Engine
Offline synthetic seismogram calculator.
 Parameters:
use_env – if
True
, fillstore_superdirs
andstore_dirs
with paths set in environment variables GF_STORE_SUPERDIRS and GF_STORE_DIRS.use_config –
if
True
, fillstore_superdirs
andstore_dirs
with paths set in the user’s config file.The config file can be found at
~/.pyrocko/config.pf
gf_store_dirs: ['/home/pyrocko/gf_stores/ak135/'] gf_store_superdirs: ['/home/pyrocko/gf_stores/']
 ♦ store_superdirs¶
list
ofstr
objects, default:[]
directories which are searched for Green’s function stores
 ♦ store_dirs¶
list
ofstr
objects, default:[]
additional individual Green’s function store directories
 ♦ default_store_id¶
str
, optionaldefault store ID to be used when a request does not provide one
 get_store(store_id=None)[source]¶
Get a store from the engine.
 Parameters:
store_id – identifier of the store (optional)
 Returns:
Store
object
If no
store_id
is provided the store associated with thedefault_store_id
is returned. RaisesNoDefaultStoreSet
ifdefault_store_id
is undefined.
 class RemoteEngine(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
Engine
Client for remote synthetic seismogram calculator.
 ♦ site¶
str
, optional, default:'localhost'
 ♦ url¶
str
, optional, default:'%(site)s/gfws/%(service)s/%(majorversion)i/%(method)s'
 class SourceList(**kwargs)[source]¶
Bases:
SourceGroup
Undocumented.