List of Sandbox Sources

Note

  • Easting and Northing is in meter.
  • Strike is degree from North.
  • Dip is degree from horizontal.
  • Rake is clockwise from left-lateral strike-slip, hence 180 degree is right-lateral strike-slip.

The Okada Model

Surface displacement from Okada [1] sources are calculated using a wrapped and parallelized (OpenMP) disloc code.

[1]Okada, Y., 1992, Internal deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 82, 1018-1040.
class kite.sources.OkadaSource(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: kite.sources.base.SandboxSourceRectangular

Rectangular Okada source modell.

opening

float, optional, default: 0.0

Opening of the plane in [m]

nu

float, default: 0.25

Poisson’s ratio, typically 0.25

moment_magnitude

Moment magnitude from Seismic moment

We assume \(M_\mathrm{w} = {\frac{2}{3}}\log_{10}(M_0) - 10.7\)

Returns:Moment magnitude
Return type:float
seismic_moment

Scalar Seismic moment

Disregarding the opening (as for now) We assume a shear modulus of \(\mu = 36 \mathrm{GPa}\) and \(M_0 = \mu A D\)

Important

We assume a perfect elastic solid with \(K=\frac{5}{3}\mu\)

Through \(\mu = \frac{3K(1-2\nu)}{2(1+\nu)}\) this leads to \(\mu = \frac{8(1+\nu)}{1-2\nu}\)

Returns:Seismic moment release
Return type:float

Pyrocko Source Models

Pyrocko source models are calculated from pre-calculated Green’s function databases using pyrocko.gf. For more information see https://pyrocko.org/docs/current/apps/fomosto/.

class kite.sources.PyrockoSource[source]

Bases: object

class kite.sources.PyrockoRectangularSource(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: kite.sources.base.SandboxSourceRectangular, kite.sources.pyrocko_gf.PyrockoSource

Classical Haskell source model modified for bilateral rupture. See pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.RectangularSource.

decimation_factor

int, optional, default: 10

Sub-source decimation factor.

store_dir

str

Pyrocko GF Store path

class kite.sources.PyrockoMomentTensor(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: kite.sources.base.SandboxSource, kite.sources.pyrocko_gf.PyrockoSource

A moment tensor point source.

See pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.MomentTensor.

store_dir

str

Pyrocko GF Store path

mnn

float, default: 1.0

north-north component of moment tensor in [Nm]

mee

float, default: 1.0

east-east component of moment tensor in [Nm]

mdd

float, default: 1.0

down-down component of moment tensor in [Nm]

mne

float, default: 0.0

north-east component of moment tensor in [Nm]

mnd

float, default: 0.0

north-down component of moment tensor in [Nm]

med

float, default: 0.0

east-down component of moment tensor in [Nm]

class kite.sources.PyrockoDoubleCouple(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: kite.sources.base.SandboxSource, kite.sources.pyrocko_gf.PyrockoSource

A double-couple point source.

See pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.DCSource.

strike

float, default: 0.0

strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north

magnitude

float, default: 6.0

moment magnitude Mw as in [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]

dip

float, default: 90.0

dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal

rake

float, default: 0.0

rake angle in [deg], measured counter-clockwise from right-horizontal in on-plane view

store_dir

str

Pyrocko GF Store path

class kite.sources.PyrockoRingfaultSource(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: kite.sources.base.SandboxSource, kite.sources.pyrocko_gf.PyrockoSource

A ring fault with vertical doublecouples.

See pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.RingfaultSource.

store_dir

str

Pyrocko GF Store path

diameter

float, default: 1.0

diameter of the ring in [m]

sign

float, default: 1.0

inside of the ring moves up (+1) or down (-1)

strike

float, default: 0.0

strike direction of the ring plane, clockwise from north, in [deg]

dip

float, default: 0.0

dip angle of the ring plane from horizontal in [deg]

npointsources

int, default: 8

number of point sources to use

magnitude

float, default: 6.0

moment magnitude Mw as in [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]

Compound Dislocation Models

Compound dislocation models developed by Mehdi Nikkhoo [2]. Are implemented in Python. More information on the routines and sources at http://www.volcanodeformation.com.

[2]Nikkhoo, M., Walter, T. R., Lundgren, P. R., Prats-Iraola, P. (2017): Compound dislocation models (CDMs) for volcano deformation analyses. - Geophysical Journal International, 208, 2, p. 877-894.
class kite.sources.EllipsoidSource(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: kite.sources.base.SandboxSource

Undocumented.

length_x

float, default: 1.0

Length of x semi-axis of ellisoid before rotation in [m]

length_y

float, default: 1.0

Length of y semi-axis of ellisoid before rotation in [m]

length_z

float, default: 1.0

Length of z semi-axis of ellisoid before rotation in [m]

rotation_x

float, default: 0.0

Clockwise rotation of ellipsoid around x-axis in [deg]

rotation_y

float, default: 0.0

Clockwise rotation of ellipsoid around y-axis in [deg]

rotation_z

float, default: 0.0

Clockwise rotation of ellipsoid around z-axis in [deg]

mu

float, default: 8.0

Shear modulus, 2. Lame constant in [GPa]

lamda

float, default: 8.0

Lame constant in [GPa]

cavity_pressure

float, default: 0.5

Pressure on the cavity walls in [GPa]

class kite.sources.PointCompoundSource(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: kite.sources.base.SandboxSource

Undocumented.

rotation_x

float, default: 0.0

Clockwise rotation of ellipsoid around x-axis in [deg]

rotation_y

float, default: 0.0

Clockwise rotation of ellipsoid around y-axis in [deg]

rotation_z

float, default: 0.0

Clockwise rotation of ellipsoid around z-axis in [deg]

dVx

float, default: 1.0

Volume change in x-plane in [m3]

dVy

float, default: 1.0

Volume change in y-plane in [m3]

dVz

float, default: 1.0

Volume change in z-plane in [m3]

nu

float, default: 0.25

Poisson’s ratio, typically 0.25

Objects Bases

class kite.sources.base.SandboxSource(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Undocumented.

easting

float

Easting in [m]

northing

float

Northing in [m]

depth

float

Depth in [m]

class kite.sources.base.SandboxSourceRectangular(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: kite.sources.base.SandboxSource

Undocumented.

width

float

Width, downdip in [m]

length

float

Length in [m]

strike

float, default: 45.0

Strike, clockwise from North in [deg]; -180-180

dip

float, default: 45.0

Dip, down from horizontal in [deg]; 0-90

rake

float, default: 90.0

Rake, clockwise in [deg]; 0 is right-lateral strike slip

slip

float, optional, default: 1.5

Slip in [m]