gf
¶
PyrockoGF: storage and calculation of synthetic seismograms
The pyrocko.gf
subpackage splits functionality into several submodules:
The
pyrocko.gf.store
module deals with the storage, retrieval and summation of Green’s functions.The
pyrocko.gf.meta
module provides data structures for the meta information associated with the Green’s function stores and implements various the Green’s function lookup indexing schemes.The
pyrocko.gf.builder
module defines a common base for Green’s function store builders.The
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer
module provides high level synthetic seismogram synthesis.
All classes defined in the pyrocko.gf.*
submodules are imported into the
pyrocko.gf
namespace, so user scripts may simply use from pyrocko
import gf
or from pyrocko.gf import *
for convenience.
gf.store
¶

class
GFTrace
(data=None, itmin=None, deltat=1.0, is_zero=False, begin_value=None, end_value=None, tmin=None)[source]¶ Bases:
object
Green’s Function trace class for handling traces from the GF store.

property
t
¶ Time vector of the GF trace.
 Returns
Time vector
 Return type

property

class
Store
(store_dir, mode='r', use_memmap=True)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.store.BaseStore
Green’s function disk storage and summation machine.
The Store can be used to efficiently store, retrieve, and sum Green’s function traces. A Store contains many 1D time traces sampled at even multiples of a global sampling rate, where each time trace has an individual start and end time. The traces are treated as having repeating end points, so the functions they represent can be nonconstant only between begin and end time. It provides capabilities to retrieve decimated traces and to extract parts of the traces. The main purpose of this class is to provide a fast, easy to use, and flexible machanism to compute weighted delayandsum stacks with many Green’s function traces involved.
Individual Green’s functions are accessed through a single integer index at low level. On top of that, various indexing schemes can be implemented by providing a mapping from physical coordinates to the low level index i. E.g. for a problem with cylindrical symmetry, one might define a mapping from the coordinates (receiver_depth, source_depth, distance) to the low level index. Index translation is done in the
pyrocko.gf.meta.Config
subclass object associated with the Store. It is accessible through the store’sconfig
attribute, and contains all meta information about the store, including physical extent, geometry, sampling rate, and information about the type of the stored Green’s functions. Information about the underlying earth model can also be found there.A GF store can also contain tabulated phase arrivals. In basic cases, these can be created with the
make_ttt()
and evaluated with thet()
methods.
config
¶ The
pyrocko.gf.meta.Config
derived object associated with the store which contains all meta information about the store and provides the highlevel to lowlevel index mapping.

store_dir
¶ Path to the store’s data directory.

mode
¶ The mode in which the store is opened:
'r'
: readonly,'w'
: writeable.

classmethod
create
(store_dir, config, force=False, extra=None)[source]¶ Create new GF store.
Creates a new GF store at path
store_dir
. The layout of the GF is defined with the parameters given inconfig
, which should be an object of a subclass ofConfig
. This function will refuse to overwrite an existing GF store, unlessforce
is set toTrue
. If more information, e.g. parameters used for the modelling code, earth models or other, should be saved along with the GF store, these may be provided though a dict given toextra
. The keys of this dict must be names and the values must be guts type objects.

put
(args, trace)[source]¶ Insert trace into GF store.
Store a single GF trace at (highlevel) index
args
. Parameters
args (tuple) –
Config
index tuple, e.g.(source_depth, distance, component)
as inConfigTypeA
. Returns
GF trace at
args
 Return type

get
(args, itmin=None, nsamples=None, decimate=1, interpolation='nearest_neighbor', implementation='c')[source]¶ Retrieve GF trace from store.
Retrieve a single GF trace from the store at (highlevel) index
args
. By default, the full trace is retrieved. Givenitmin
andnsamples
, only the selected portion of the trace is extracted. Ifdecimate
is an integer in the range [2,8], the trace is decimated on the fly or, if available, the trace is read from a decimated version of the GF store. Parameters
args (tuple) –
Config
index tuple, e.g.(source_depth, distance, component)
as inConfigTypeA
.itmin (int or None) – Start time index (start time is
itmin * dt
), defaults to Nonensamples (int or None) – Number of samples, defaults to None
decimate (int) – Decimatation factor, defaults to 1
interpolation (str) – Interpolation method
['nearest_neighbor', 'multilinear', 'off']
, defaults to'nearest_neighbor'
implementation (str) – Implementation to use
['c', 'reference']
, defaults to'c'
.
 Returns
GF trace at
args
 Return type

sum
(args, delays, weights, itmin=None, nsamples=None, decimate=1, interpolation='nearest_neighbor', implementation='c', optimization='enable')[source]¶ Sum delayed and weighted GF traces.
Calculate sum of delayed and weighted GF traces.
args
is a tuple of arrays forming the (highlevel) indices of the GF traces to be selected. Delays and weights for the summation are given in the arraysdelays
andweights
.itmin
andnsamples
can be given to restrict to computation to a given time interval. Ifdecimate
is an integer in the range [2,8], decimated traces are used in the summation. Parameters
args (tuple(numpy.ndarray)) –
Config
index tuple, e.g.(source_depth, distance, component)
as inConfigTypeA
.delays (
numpy.ndarray
) – Delay timesweights (
numpy.ndarray
) – Trace weightsitmin (int or None) – Start time index (start time is
itmin * dt
), defaults to Nonensamples (int or None) – Number of samples, defaults to None
decimate (int) – Decimatation factor, defaults to 1
interpolation (str) – Interpolation method
['nearest_neighbor', 'multilinear', 'off']
, defaults to'nearest_neighbor'
implementation (str) – Implementation to use,
['c', 'alternative', 'reference']
, where'alternative'
and'reference'
use a Python implementation, defaults to ‘c’optimization (str) – Optimization mode
['enable', 'disable']
, defaults to'enable'
 Returns
Stacked GF trace.
 Return type

make_decimated
(decimate, config=None, force=False, show_progress=False)[source]¶ Create decimated version of GF store.
Create a downsampled version of the GF store. Downsampling is done for the integer factor
decimate
which should be in the range [2,8]. Ifconfig
isNone
, all traces of the GF store are decimated and held available (i.e. the index mapping of the original store is used), otherwise, a different spacial stepping can be specified by giving a modified GF store configuration inconfig
(seecreate()
). Decimated GF substores are created under thedecimated
subdirectory within the GF store directory. Holding available decimated versions of the GF store can save computation time, IO bandwidth, or decrease memory footprint at the cost of increased disk space usage, when computation are done for lower frequency signals.

get_stored_phase
(phase_id)[source]¶ Get stored phase from GF store
 Returns
Phase information
 Return type
pyrocko.spit.SPTree

t
(timing, *args)[source]¶ Compute interpolated phase arrivals.
Examples:
If
test_store
is ofConfigTypeA
:test_store.t('p', (1000, 10000)) test_store.t('last{PPdiff}', (1000, 10000)) # The latter arrival # of P or diffracted # P phase
If
test_store
is ofConfigTypeB
:test_store.t('S', (1000, 1000, 10000)) test_store.t('first{PpPdiffsP}', (1000, 1000, 10000)) # The ` # first arrival of # the given phases is # selected

make_timing_params
(begin, end, snap_vred=True, force=False)[source]¶ Compute tight parameterized time ranges to include given timings.
Calculates appropriate time ranges to cover given begin and end timings over all GF points in the store. A dict with the following keys is returned:
'tmin'
: time [s], minimum of begin timing over all GF points'tmax'
: time [s], maximum of end timing over all GF points'vred'
,'tmin_vred'
: slope [m/s] and offset [s] of reduction velocity [m/s] appropriate to catch begin timing over all GF points'tlenmax_vred'
: maximum time length needed to cover all end timings, when using linear slope given with (vred
,tmin_vred
) as start

make_ttt
(force=False)[source]¶ Compute travel time tables.
Travel time tables are computed using the 1D earth model defined in
earthmodel_1d
for each defined phase intabulated_phases
. The accuracy of the tablulated times is adjusted to the sampling rate of the store.

gf.builder
¶
gf.seismosizer
¶

class
Range
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.SObject
Convenient range specification.
Equivalent ways to sepecify the range [ 0., 1000., … 10000. ]:
Range('0 .. 10k : 1k') Range(start=0., stop=10e3, step=1e3) Range(0, 10e3, 1e3) Range('0 .. 10k @ 11') Range(start=0., stop=10*km, n=11) Range(0, 10e3, n=11) Range(values=[x*1e3 for x in range(11)])
Depending on the use context, it can be possible to omit any part of the specification. E.g. in the context of extracting a subset of an already existing range, the existing range’s specification values would be filled in where missing.
The values are distributed with equal spacing, unless the
spacing
argument is modified. The values can be created offset or relative to an external base value with therelative
argument if the use context supports this.The range specification can be expressed with a short string representation:
'start .. stop @ num  spacing, relative' 'start .. stop : step  spacing, relative'
most parts of the expression can be omitted if not needed. Whitespace is allowed for readability but can also be omitted.

♦
start
¶ float
, optional

♦
stop
¶ float
, optional

♦
step
¶ float
, optional

♦
n
¶ int
, optional

♦
values
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), optional

♦
spacing
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:'lin'

♦
relative
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:''

♦

class
STF
(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
,pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Cloneable
Base class for source time functions.

class
BoxcarSTF
(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.STF
Boxcar type source time function.

♦
duration
¶ float
, default:0.0
duration of the boxcar

♦
anchor
¶ float
, default:0.0
anchor point with respect to source.time: (1.0: left > source duration [0, T] ~ hypocenter time, 0.0: center > source duration [T/2, T/2] ~ centroid time, +1.0: right > source duration [T, 0] ~ rupture end time)

♦

class
TriangularSTF
(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.STF
Triangular type source time function.

♦
duration
¶ float
, default:0.0
baseline of the triangle

♦
peak_ratio
¶ float
, default:0.5
fraction of time compared to duration, when the maximum amplitude is reached

♦
anchor
¶ float
, default:0.0
anchor point with respect to source.time: (1.0: left > source duration [0, T] ~ hypocenter time, 0.0: center > source duration [T/2, T/2] ~ centroid time, +1.0: right > source duration [T, 0] ~ rupture end time)

♦

class
HalfSinusoidSTF
(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.STF
Half sinusoid type source time function.

♦
duration
¶ float
, default:0.0
duration of the halfsinusoid (baseline)

♦
anchor
¶ float
, default:0.0
anchor point with respect to source.time: (1.0: left > source duration [0, T] ~ hypocenter time, 0.0: center > source duration [T/2, T/2] ~ centroid time, +1.0: right > source duration [T, 0] ~ rupture end time)

♦
exponent
¶ int
, default:1
set to 2 to use square of the halfperiod sinusoidal function.

♦

class
ResonatorSTF
(effective_duration=None, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.STF
Simple resonator like source time function.

♦
duration
¶ float
, default:0.0
decay time

♦
frequency
¶ float
, default:1.0
resonance frequency

♦

class
STFMode
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
Any
str
out of['pre', 'post']
.

class
Source
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.model.location.Location
,pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Cloneable
Base class for all source models.

♦
name
¶ str
, optional, default:''

♦
time
¶ builtins.float
(pyrocko.guts.Timestamp
), default:0.0
source origin time.

♦
stf_mode
¶ builtins.str
(STFMode
), default:'post'
whether to apply source time function in pre or postprocessing.

update
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Change some of the source models parameters.
Example:
>>> from pyrocko import gf >>> s = gf.DCSource() >>> s.update(strike=66., dip=33.) >>> print s  !pf.DCSource depth: 0.0 time: 19700101 00:00:00 magnitude: 6.0 strike: 66.0 dip: 33.0 rake: 0.0

grid
(**variables)[source]¶ Create grid of source model variations.
 Returns
SourceGrid
instance.
Example:
>>> from pyrocko import gf >>> base = DCSource() >>> R = gf.Range >>> for s in base.grid(R('

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

effective_stf_pre
()[source]¶ Return the STF applied before stacking of the Green’s functions.
This STF is used during discretization of the parameterized source models, i.e. to produce a temporal distribution of point sources.
Handling of the STF before stacking of the GFs is less efficient but allows to use different source time functions for different parts of the source.

effective_stf_post
()[source]¶ Return the STF applied after stacking of the Green’s fuctions.
This STF is used in the postprocessing of the synthetic seismograms.
Handling of the STF after stacking of the GFs is usually more efficient but is only possible when a common STF is used for all subsources.

♦

class
SourceWithMagnitude
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Source
Base class for sources containing a moment magnitude.

♦
magnitude
¶ float
, default:6.0
Moment magnitude Mw as in [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]

♦

class
SourceWithDerivedMagnitude
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Source
Undocumented.

check_conflicts
()[source]¶ Check for parameter conflicts.
To be overloaded in subclasses. Raises
DerivedMagnitudeError
on conflicts.


class
ExplosionSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.SourceWithDerivedMagnitude
An isotropic explosion point source.

♦
magnitude
¶ float
, optionalmoment magnitude Mw as in [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]

♦
volume_change
¶ float
, optionalvolume change of the explosion/implosion or the contracting/extending magmatic source. [m^3]

discretized_source_class
¶

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

check_conflicts
()[source]¶ Check for parameter conflicts.
To be overloaded in subclasses. Raises
DerivedMagnitudeError
on conflicts.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

♦

class
RectangularExplosionSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.ExplosionSource
Rectangular or line explosion source.

♦
strike
¶ float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north

♦
dip
¶ float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal

♦
length
¶ float
, default:0.0
length of rectangular source area [m]

♦
width
¶ float
, default:0.0
width of rectangular source area [m]

♦
anchor
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:'center'
Anchor point for positioning the plane, can be: top, center orbottom and also top_left, top_right,bottom_left,bottom_right, center_left and center right

♦
nucleation_x
¶ float
, optionalhorizontal position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (1 = left edge, +1 = right edge)

♦
nucleation_y
¶ float
, optionaldowndip position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (1 = upper edge, +1 = lower edge)

♦
velocity
¶ float
, default:3500.0
speed of explosion front [m/s]

discretized_source_class
¶

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

♦

class
DCSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.SourceWithMagnitude
A doublecouple point source.

♦
strike
¶ float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north

♦
dip
¶ float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal

♦
rake
¶ float
, default:0.0
rake angle in [deg], measured counterclockwise from righthorizontal in onplane view

discretized_source_class
¶ alias of
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedMTSource

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

♦

class
CLVDSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.SourceWithMagnitude
A pure CLVD point source.

♦
azimuth
¶ float
, default:0.0
azimuth direction of largest dipole, clockwise from north [deg]

♦
dip
¶ float
, default:90.0
dip direction of largest dipole, downward from horizontal [deg]

discretized_source_class
¶ alias of
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedMTSource

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

♦

class
VLVDSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.SourceWithDerivedMagnitude
Volumetric linear vector dipole source.
This source is a parameterization for a restricted moment tensor point source, useful to represent dyke or sill like inflation or deflation sources. The restriction is such that the moment tensor is rotational symmetric. It can be represented by a superposition of a linear vector dipole (here we use a CLVD for convenience) and an isotropic component. The restricted moment tensor has 4 degrees of freedom: 2 independent eigenvalues and 2 rotation angles orienting the the symmetry axis.
In this parameterization, the isotropic component is controlled by
volume_change
. To define the moment tensor, it must be converted to the scalar moment of the the MT’s isotropic component. For the conversion, the shear modulus at the source’s position must be known. This value is extracted from the earth model defined in the GF store in use.The CLVD part by controlled by its scalar moment :
clvd_moment
. The sign ofclvd_moment
is used to switch between a positiv or negativ CLVD (the sign of the largest eigenvalue).
♦
azimuth
¶ float
, default:0.0
azimuth direction of symmetry axis, clockwise from north [deg].

♦
dip
¶ float
, default:90.0
dip direction of symmetry axis, downward from horizontal [deg].

♦
volume_change
¶ float
, default:0.0
volume change of the inflation/deflation [m^3].

♦
clvd_moment
¶ float
, default:0.0
scalar moment of the CLVD component [Nm]. The sign controls the sign of the CLVD (the sign of its largest eigenvalue).

discretized_source_class
¶ alias of
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedMTSource

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

♦

class
MTSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Source
A moment tensor point source.

♦
mnn
¶ float
, default:1.0
northnorth component of moment tensor in [Nm]

♦
mee
¶ float
, default:1.0
easteast component of moment tensor in [Nm]

♦
mdd
¶ float
, default:1.0
downdown component of moment tensor in [Nm]

♦
mne
¶ float
, default:0.0
northeast component of moment tensor in [Nm]

♦
mnd
¶ float
, default:0.0
northdown component of moment tensor in [Nm]

♦
med
¶ float
, default:0.0
eastdown component of moment tensor in [Nm]

discretized_source_class
¶ alias of
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedMTSource

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

♦

class
RectangularSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.SourceWithDerivedMagnitude
Classical Haskell source model modified for bilateral rupture.

♦
magnitude
¶ float
, optionalmoment magnitude Mw as in [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]

♦
strike
¶ float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north

♦
dip
¶ float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal

♦
rake
¶ float
, default:0.0
rake angle in [deg], measured counterclockwise from righthorizontal in onplane view

♦
length
¶ float
, default:0.0
length of rectangular source area [m]

♦
width
¶ float
, default:0.0
width of rectangular source area [m]

♦
anchor
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:'center'
Anchor point for positioning the plane, can be: top, center orbottom and also top_left, top_right,bottom_left,bottom_right, center_left and center right

♦
nucleation_x
¶ float
, optionalhorizontal position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (1 = left edge, +1 = right edge)

♦
nucleation_y
¶ float
, optionaldowndip position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (1 = upper edge, +1 = lower edge)

♦
velocity
¶ float
, default:3500.0
speed of rupture front [m/s]

♦
slip
¶ float
, optionalSlip on the rectangular source area [m]

♦
decimation_factor
¶ int
, optional, default:1
Subsource decimation factor, a larger decimation will make the result inaccurate but shorten the necessary computation time (use for testing puposes only).

discretized_source_class
¶ alias of
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedMTSource

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

check_conflicts
()[source]¶ Check for parameter conflicts.
To be overloaded in subclasses. Raises
DerivedMagnitudeError
on conflicts.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

♦

class
PseudoDynamicRupture
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.SourceWithDerivedMagnitude
Merged Eikonal and Okada Source for quasidynamic rupture modeling

♦
strike
¶ float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north

♦
dip
¶ float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal

♦
length
¶ float
, default:0.0
length of rectangular source area [m]

♦
width
¶ float
, default:0.0
width of rectangular source area [m]

♦
anchor
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:'center'
Anchor point for positioning the plane, can be: top, center or bottom and also top_left, top_right,bottom_left, bottom_right, center_left and center right

♦
nucleation_x
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), default:array([0.])
horizontal position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (1 = left edge, +1 = right edge)

♦
nucleation_y
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), default:array([0.])
downdip position of rupture nucleation in normalized fault plane coordinates (1 = upper edge, +1 = lower edge)

♦
nucleation_time
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), optionalTime in [s] after origin, when nucleation points defined by nucleation_x and nucleation_y shall rupture.

♦
gamma
¶ float
, default:0.8
scaling factor between S wave velocity and rupture velocity: v_r = gamma * v_s

♦
nx
¶ int
, default:2
number of discrete source patches in x direction (along strike)

♦
ny
¶ int
, default:2
number of discrete source patches in y direction (down dip)

♦
magnitude
¶ float
, optionalmoment magnitude Mw as in [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]Setting the moment magnitude the tractions/stress fieldwill be normalized to accomodate the desired moment magnitude.Mutually exclusive with the slip parameter.

♦
slip
¶ float
, optionalmaximum slip of the rectangular source [m]Setting the moment magnitude the tractions/stress fieldwill be normalized to accomodate the desired maximum slip.Mutually exclusive with the magnitude parameter.

♦
rake
¶ float
, optionalrake angle in [deg], measured counterclockwise from righthorizontal in onplane view. Rake is translated into homogenous tractions in strike and updip direction. Rake is mutually exclusive with tractions parameter.

♦
patches
¶ list
ofpyrocko.modelling.okada.OkadaSource
objects, optionalList of all boundary elements/sub faults/fault patches

♦
tractions
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), optionalStress field the source is exposed to in [Pa].Float will initialize an isotrop stress field for sigma_strike, sigma_dip_up, sigma_normal.Tuple of (sigma_strike, sigma_dip_up, sigma_normal) willinitialize a homogenous stress field for all patches.Array of traction vectors per source patch (size = nx*ny, 3) source patch (order: [ [src1_stress_strike, src1_stress_dip_up, src1_stress_tensile], [src2_stress_strike, …]])When parameters magnitude or slip are defined, tractions will benormalized to accomodate the desired energy release.

♦
coef_mat
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
), optionalCoefficient matrix linking traction and dislocation field

♦
eikonal_decimation
¶ int
, optional, default:1
Subsource eikonal factor, a smaller eikonal factor will increase the accuracy of rupture front calculation but increases also the computation time.

♦
decimation_factor
¶ int
, optional, default:1
Subsource decimation factor, a larger decimation will make the result inaccurate but shorten the necessary computation time (use for testing puposes only).

♦
nthreads
¶ int
, optional, default:1
Number of threads for Okada forward modelling and matrix inversion.Note: for small/medium matrices 1 thread is most efficient!

♦
pure_shear
¶ bool
, optional, default:False
Calculate only shear tractions, and omit tensile tractions.

discretized_source_class
¶ alias of
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedMTSource

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

check_conflicts
()[source]¶ Check for parameter conflicts.
To be overloaded in subclasses. Raises
DerivedMagnitudeError
on conflicts.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

discretize_time
(store, interpolation='nearest_neighbor', times=None, *args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Get rupture start time for discrete points on source plane
 Parameters
store (
pyrocko.gf.store.Store
) – Greens function database (needs to cover whole region of of the source)target (optional,
pyrocko.gf.target.Target
) – Target informationtimes (optional,
numpy.ndarray
) – Array, containing zeros, where rupture is starting and otherwise 1, where time will be calculated. If not given, rupture starts at nucleation_x, nucleation_y. Times are given for discrete points with equal horizontal and vertical spacing
 Returns
Coordinates (latlondepth), Coordinates (xy), rupture velocity rupture propagation time of discrete points
 Return type
numpy.ndarray
,(points.shape[0], 1)
,numpy.ndarray
,(points.shape[0], 1)
,numpy.ndarray
,(n_points_dip, n_points_strike)
,numpy.ndarray
,(n_points_dip, n_points_strike)

discretize_patches
(store, interpolation='nearest_neighbor', grid_shape=(), *args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Get rupture start time and OkadaSource elements for discrete centre points on source plane and stores them in the patchesattribute
Arguments and keyword arguments needed for self.discretize_time.
 Parameters
store (
pyrocko.gf.store.Store
) – Greens function database (needs to cover whole region of of the source)interpolation (optional, str) – Kind of interpolation used. Choice between ‘multilinear’ and ‘nearest_neighbor’
grid_shape (optional, tuple of int) – Wished sub fault patch grid size (nlength, nwidth). Either factor or grid_shape should be set.

discretize_basesource
(store, target=None)[source]¶ Prepare source for synthetic waveform calculation
 Parameters
store (
pyrocko.gf.store.Store
) – Greens function database (needs to cover whole region of of the source) Returns
Source discretized by a set of moment tensors and times
 Return type

calc_coef_mat
()[source]¶ Calculate linear coefficient relating tractions and dislocations on the fault patches

get_patch_attribute
(attr)[source]¶ Get array of patch attributes
 Parameters
attr (str) – Attribute of fault patches which shall be listed for all patches in an array (possible attributes: check :py:class`pyrocko.modelling.okada.OkadaSource`)
 Returns
Array of attribute values per fault patch
 Return type
:py:class`numpy.ndarray`

get_okada_slip
(time=None, scale_slip=True, **kwargs)[source]¶ Get slip per subfault patch for given time after rupture start
 Parameters
time (float > 0.) – time after origin [s], for which slip is computed
 Returns
inverted displacements (u_strike, u_dip , u_tensile) for each source patch. order: [ patch1 u_Strike, patch1 u_Dip, patch1 u_Tensile, patch2 u_Strike, …]
 Return type
numpy.ndarray
,(n_sources * 3, 1)

get_delta_slip
(store=None, dt=None, **kwargs)[source]¶ Get slip change inverted from OkadaSources depending on store deltat
The time intervall, within which the slip changes are computed is determined by the sampling rate of the Greens function database. Arguments and keyword arguments needed for self.get_okada_slip.
 Parameters
store (optional,
pyrocko.gf.store.Store
) – Greens function database (needs to cover whole region of of the source). Its delta t [s] is used as time increment for slip difference calculation. Either dt or store should be given.dt (optional, float) – time increment for slip difference calculation [s]. Either dt or store should be given.
 Returns
displacement changes(du_strike, du_dip , du_tensile) for each source patch and time. order: [ patch1 du_Strike t1, patch1 du_Dip t1, patch1 du_Tensile t1, patch2 du_Strike t1, …], [ patch1 du_Strike t2, patch1 du_Dip t2, patch1 du_Tensile t2, patch2 du_Strike t2, …]; corner times, for which delta slip is computed
 Return type
numpy.ndarray
,(n_sources * 3, n_times)
numpy.ndarray
,(n_times, 1)

get_moment_rate
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Get scalar seismic moment rate for each boundary element individually
Arguments and keyword arguments needed for self.get_okada_slip.
 Returns
seismic moment rate for each source patch and time. order: [ patch1 moment_rate t1, patch2 moment_rate t1, …], [ patch1 moment_rate t2, patch2 moment_rate t2, …]; corner times, for which moment rate is computed based on slip rate
 Return type
numpy.ndarray
,(n_sources, n_times)
numpy.ndarray
,(n_times, 1)

get_source_moment_rate
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Get seismic source moment rate for the total source
Arguments and keyword arguments needed for self.get_okada_slip.
 Returns
seismic moment rate for each time. order: [ moment_rate t1, moment_rate t2, …]; corner times, for which moment rate is computed based on slip rate
 Return type
numpy.ndarray
,(n_times, 1)
numpy.ndarray
,(n_times, 1)

♦

class
DoubleDCSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.SourceWithMagnitude
Two doublecouple point sources separated in space and time. Moment share between the subsources is controlled by the parameter mix. The position of the subsources is dependent on the moment distribution between the two sources. Depth, east and north shift are given for the centroid between the two doublecouples. The subsources will positioned according to their moment shares around this centroid position. This is done according to their delta parameters, which are therefore in relation to that centroid. Note that depth of the subsources therefore can be depth+/delta_depth. For shallow earthquakes therefore the depth has to be chosen deeper to avoid sampling above surface.

♦
strike1
¶ float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north

♦
dip1
¶ float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal

♦
azimuth
¶ float
, default:0.0
azimuth to second doublecouple [deg], measured at first, clockwise from north

♦
rake1
¶ float
, default:0.0
rake angle in [deg], measured counterclockwise from righthorizontal in onplane view

♦
strike2
¶ float
, default:0.0
strike direction in [deg], measured clockwise from north

♦
dip2
¶ float
, default:90.0
dip angle in [deg], measured downward from horizontal

♦
rake2
¶ float
, default:0.0
rake angle in [deg], measured counterclockwise from righthorizontal in onplane view

♦
delta_time
¶ float
, default:0.0
separation of doublecouples in time (t2t1) [s]

♦
delta_depth
¶ float
, default:0.0
difference in depth (z2z1) [m]

♦
distance
¶ float
, default:0.0
distance between the two doublecouples [m]

♦
mix
¶ float
, default:0.5
how to distribute the moment to the two doublecouples mix=0 > m1=1 and m2=0; mix=1 > m1=0, m2=1

♦
stf1
¶ STF
, optionalSource time function of subsource 1 (if given, overrides STF from attribute
Source.stf
)

♦
stf2
¶ STF
, optionalSource time function of subsource 2 (if given, overrides STF from attribute
Source.stf
)

discretized_source_class
¶ alias of
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedMTSource

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

effective_stf_post
()[source]¶ Return the STF applied after stacking of the Green’s fuctions.
This STF is used in the postprocessing of the synthetic seismograms.
Handling of the STF after stacking of the GFs is usually more efficient but is only possible when a common STF is used for all subsources.

♦

class
RingfaultSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.SourceWithMagnitude
A ring fault with vertical doublecouples.

♦
diameter
¶ float
, default:1.0
diameter of the ring in [m]

♦
sign
¶ float
, default:1.0
inside of the ring moves up (+1) or down (1)

♦
strike
¶ float
, default:0.0
strike direction of the ring plane, clockwise from north, in [deg]

♦
dip
¶ float
, default:0.0
dip angle of the ring plane from horizontal in [deg]

♦
npointsources
¶ int
, default:360
number of point sources to use

discretized_source_class
¶ alias of
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedMTSource

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

♦

class
CombiSource
(subsources=[], **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Source
Composite source model.

discretized_source_class
¶ alias of
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedMTSource

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).


class
SFSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Source
A single force point source.

♦
fn
¶ float
, default:0.0
northward component of single force [N]

♦
fe
¶ float
, default:0.0
eastward component of single force [N]

♦
fd
¶ float
, default:0.0
downward component of single force [N]

discretized_source_class
¶ alias of
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedSFSource

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

♦

class
PorePressurePointSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Source
Excess pore pressure point source.
For poroelastic initial value problem where an excess pore pressure is brought into a small source volume.

♦
pp
¶ float
, default:1.0
initial excess pore pressure in [Pa]

discretized_source_class
¶

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

♦

class
PorePressureLineSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Source
Excess pore pressure line source.
The line source is centered at (north_shift, east_shift, depth).

♦
pp
¶ float
, default:1.0
initial excess pore pressure in [Pa]

♦
length
¶ float
, default:0.0
length of the line source [m]

♦
azimuth
¶ float
, default:0.0
azimuth direction, clockwise from north [deg]

♦
dip
¶ float
, default:90.0
dip direction, downward from horizontal [deg]

discretized_source_class
¶

base_key
()[source]¶ Get key to decide about source discretization / GF stack sharing.
When two source models differ only in amplitude and origin time, the discretization and the GF stacking can be done only once for a unit amplitude and a zero origin time and the amplitude and origin times of the seismograms can be applied during postprocessing of the synthetic seismogram.
For any derived parameterized source model, this method is called to decide if discretization and stacking of the source should be shared. When two source models return an equal vector of values discretization is shared.

get_factor
()[source]¶ Get the scaling factor to be applied during postprocessing.
Discretization of the base seismogram is usually done for a unit amplitude, because a common factor can be efficiently multiplied to final seismograms. This eliminates to do repeat the stacking when creating seismograms for a series of source models only differing in amplitude.
This method should return the scaling factor to apply in the postprocessing (often this is simply the scalar moment of the source).

♦

class
Request
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Synthetic seismogram computation request.
Request(**kwargs) Request(sources, targets, **kwargs)

♦
targets
¶ list
ofpyrocko.gf.targets.Target
objects, default:[]
list of targets for which to produce synthetics.

♦

class
ProcessingStats
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Undocumented.

♦
t_perc_get_store_and_receiver
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_perc_discretize_source
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_perc_make_base_seismogram
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_perc_make_same_span
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_perc_post_process
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_perc_optimize
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_perc_stack
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_perc_static_get_store
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_perc_static_discretize_basesource
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_perc_static_sum_statics
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_perc_static_post_process
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_wallclock
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
t_cpu
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
n_read_blocks
¶ int
, default:0

♦
n_results
¶ int
, default:0

♦
n_subrequests
¶ int
, default:0

♦
n_stores
¶ int
, default:0

♦
n_records_stacked
¶ int
, default:0

♦

class
Response
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Resonse object to a synthetic seismogram computation request.

♦
results_list
¶ list
oflist
ofpyrocko.gf.meta.SeismosizerResult
objects objects, default:[]

♦
stats
¶

static_results
()[source]¶ Return a list of requested
StaticResult
instances.

♦

class
Engine
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Base class for synthetic seismogram calculators.

class
LocalEngine
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Engine
Offline synthetic seismogram calculator.
 Parameters
use_env – if
True
, fillstore_superdirs
andstore_dirs
with paths set in environment variables GF_STORE_SUPERDIRS and GF_STORE_DIRS.use_config –
if
True
, fillstore_superdirs
andstore_dirs
with paths set in the user’s config file.The config file can be found at
~/.pyrocko/config.pf
gf_store_dirs: ['/home/pyrocko/gf_stores/ak135/'] gf_store_superdirs: ['/home/pyrocko/gf_stores/']

♦
store_superdirs
¶ list
ofstr
objects, default:[]
directories which are searched for Green’s function stores

♦
store_dirs
¶ list
ofstr
objects, default:[]
additional individual Green’s function store directories

♦
default_store_id
¶ str
, optionaldefault store ID to be used when a request does not provide one

get_store
(store_id=None)[source]¶ Get a store from the engine.
 Parameters
store_id – identifier of the store (optional)
 Returns
Store
object
If no
store_id
is provided the store associated with thedefault_store_id
is returned. RaisesNoDefaultStoreSet
ifdefault_store_id
is undefined.

class
RemoteEngine
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.Engine
Client for remote synthetic seismogram calculator.

♦
site
¶ str
, optional, default:'localhost'

♦
url
¶ str
, optional, default:'%(site)s/gfws/%(service)s/%(majorversion)i/%(method)s'

♦

class
SourceList
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.seismosizer.SourceGroup
Undocumented.
gf.targets
¶

class
OptimizationMethod
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
Any
str
out of['enable', 'disable']
.

component_orientation
(source, target, component)[source]¶ Get component and azimuth for standard components R, T, Z, N, and E.
 Parameters
source –
pyrocko.gf.Location
objecttarget –
pyrocko.gf.Location
objectcomponent – string
'R'
,'T'
,'Z'
,'N'
or'E'

class
Target
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.Receiver
A seismogram computation request for a single component, including its postprocessing parmeters.

♦
quantity
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.gf.meta.QuantityType
), optionalMeasurement quantity type (e.g. “displacement”, “pressure”, …)If not given, it is guessed from the channel code.Beware: If velocity is requested, the velocity is not directlyretrieved. Instead a numpy.diff is run on the retrieveddisplacements, with lower accuracy. For high accuracy werecommend using the Pyrocko object DifferentiationResponse.

♦
codes
¶ tuple
of 4str
objects, default:('', 'STA', '', 'Z')
network, station, location and channel codes to be set on the response trace.

♦
elevation
¶ float
, default:0.0
station surface elevation in [m]

♦
store_id
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.gf.meta.StringID
), optionalID of Green’s function store to use for the computation. If not given, the processor may use a system default.

♦
sample_rate
¶ float
, optionalsample rate to produce. If not given the GF store’s default sample rate is used. GF store specific restrictions may apply.

♦
interpolation
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.gf.meta.InterpolationMethod
), default:'nearest_neighbor'
Interpolation method between Green’s functions. Supported are
nearest_neighbor
andmultilinear

♦
optimization
¶ builtins.str
(OptimizationMethod
), optional, default:'enable'
disable/enable optimizations in weightdelayandsum operation

♦
tmin
¶ builtins.float
(pyrocko.guts.Timestamp
), optionaltime of first sample to request in [s]. If not given, it is determined from the Green’s functions.

♦
tmax
¶ builtins.float
(pyrocko.guts.Timestamp
), optionaltime of last sample to request in [s]. If not given, it is determined from the Green’s functions.

♦
azimuth
¶ float
, optionalazimuth of sensor component in [deg], clockwise from north. If not given, it is guessed from the channel code.

♦
dip
¶ float
, optionaldip of sensor component in [deg], measured downward from horizontal. If not given, it is guessed from the channel code.

♦

class
StaticTarget
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.MultiLocation
A computation request for a spatial multilocation target of static/geodetic quantities.

♦
quantity
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.gf.meta.QuantityType
), optional, default:'displacement'
Measurement quantity type, for now only displacement issupported.

♦
interpolation
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.gf.meta.InterpolationMethod
), default:'nearest_neighbor'
Interpolation method between Green’s functions. Supported are
nearest_neighbor
andmultilinear

♦
tsnapshot
¶ builtins.float
(pyrocko.guts.Timestamp
), optionaltime of the desired snapshot in [s], If not given, the first sample is taken. If the desired sample exceeds the length of the Green’s function store, the last sample is taken.

♦
store_id
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.gf.meta.StringID
), optionalID of Green’s function store to use for the computation. If not given, the processor may use a system default.

property
ntargets
¶ Number of targets held by instance.

♦

class
SatelliteTarget
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.targets.StaticTarget
A computation request for a spatial multilocation target of static/geodetic quantities measured from a satellite instrument. The line of sight angles are provided and projecting postprocessing is applied.

♦
theta
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
)Horizontal angle towards satellite’s line of sight in radians.
Important
is east and is north.

♦
phi
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
)Theta is look vector elevation angle towards satellite from horizon in radians. Matrix of theta towards satellite’s line of sight.
Important
is down and is up.

♦

class
KiteSceneTarget
(scene, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.targets.SatelliteTarget
Undocumented.

♦
shape
¶ tuple
of 2int
objects, default:(None, None)
Shape of the displacement vectors.

♦

class
GNSSCampaignTarget
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.targets.StaticTarget
Undocumented.
gf.meta
¶

class
Location
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Geographical location.
The location is given by a reference point at the earth’s surface (
lat
,lon
,elevation
) and a cartesian offset from this point (north_shift
,east_shift
,depth
). The offset corrected lat/lon coordinates of the location can be accessed though theeffective_latlon
,effective_lat
, andeffective_lon
properties.
♦
lat
¶ float
, optional, default:0.0
latitude of reference point [deg]

♦
lon
¶ float
, optional, default:0.0
longitude of reference point [deg]

♦
north_shift
¶ float
, optional, default:0.0
northward cartesian offset from reference point [m]

♦
east_shift
¶ float
, optional, default:0.0
eastward cartesian offset from reference point [m]

♦
elevation
¶ float
, optional, default:0.0
surface elevation, above sea level [m]

♦
depth
¶ float
, default:0.0
depth, below surface [m]

property
effective_latlon
¶ Property holding the offsetcorrected lat/lon pair of the location.

property
effective_lat
¶ Property holding the offsetcorrected latitude of the location.

property
effective_lon
¶ Property holding the offsetcorrected longitude of the location.

♦

class
InterpolationMethod
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
Any
str
out of['nearest_neighbor', 'multilinear']
.

class
SeismosizerTrace
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Undocumented.

♦
codes
¶ tuple
of 4str
objects, default:('', 'STA', '', 'Z')
network, station, location and channel codes

♦
data
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
)numpy array with data samples

♦
deltat
¶ float
, default:1.0
sampling interval [s]

♦
tmin
¶ builtins.float
(pyrocko.guts.Timestamp
), default:0.0
time of first sample as a system timestamp [s]

♦

class
SeismosizerResult
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Undocumented.

♦
n_records_stacked
¶ int
, optional, default:1

♦
t_stack
¶ float
, optional, default:0.0

♦

class
Result
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.SeismosizerResult
Undocumented.

♦
trace
¶ SeismosizerTrace
, optional
int
, optional, default:1

♦
t_optimize
¶ float
, optional, default:0.0

♦

class
StaticResult
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.SeismosizerResult
Undocumented.

♦
result
¶ dict
ofnumpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
) objects, default:{}

♦

class
ComponentScheme
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
Different Green’s Function component schemes are available:
Name
Description
elastic10
Elastodynamic for
ConfigTypeA
andConfigTypeB
stores, MT sources onlyelastic8
Elastodynamic for farfield only
ConfigTypeA
andConfigTypeB
stores, MT sources onlyelastic2
Elastodynamic for
ConfigTypeA
andConfigTypeB
stores, purely isotropic sources onlyelastic5
Elastodynamic for
ConfigTypeA
andConfigTypeB
stores, SF sources onlyelastic18
Elastodynamic for
ConfigTypeC
stores, MT sources onlyporoelastic10
Poroelastic for
ConfigTypeA
andConfigTypeB
stores

class
StringID
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringPattern
Any
str
matching pattern'^[AZaz][AZaz09._]{0,64}$'
.

class
ScopeType
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
Any
str
out of['global', 'regional', 'local']
.

class
NearfieldTermsType
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
Any
str
out of['complete', 'incomplete', 'missing']
.

class
QuantityType
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
Any
str
out of['displacement', 'velocity', 'acceleration', 'pressure', 'tilt', 'pore_pressure', 'darcy_velocity', 'vertical_tilt']
.

class
Reference
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Undocumented.

♦
type
¶ str

♦
title
¶ str

♦
journal
¶ str
, optional

♦
volume
¶ str
, optional

♦
number
¶ str
, optional

♦
pages
¶ str
, optional

♦
year
¶ str

♦
issn
¶ str
, optional

♦
doi
¶ str
, optional

♦
url
¶ str
, optional

♦
eprint
¶ str
, optional
list
ofstr
objects, default:[]

♦
publisher
¶ str
, optional

♦
keywords
¶ str
, optional

♦
note
¶ str
, optional

♦
abstract
¶ str
, optional

♦

class
PhaseSelect
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
Any
str
out of['', 'first', 'last']
.

class
Timing
(s=None, **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.SObject
Definition of a time instant relative to one or more named phase arrivals
Instances of this class can be used e.g. in cutting and tapering operations. They can hold an absolute time or an offset to a named phase arrival or group of such arrivals.
Timings can be instantiated from a simple string defintion i.e. with
Timing(str)
wherestr
is something like'SELECT{PHASE_DEFS}[+]OFFSET[S]'
where'SELECT'
is'first'
,'last'
or empty,'PHASE_DEFS'
is a''
separated list of phase definitions, and'OFFSET'
is the time offset in seconds. If the an'S'
is appended to'OFFSET'
, it is interpreted as a surface slowness in [s/km].Phase definitions can be specified in either of the following ways:
'stored:PHASE_ID'
 retrieves value from stored travel time table'cake:CAKE_PHASE_DEF'
 evaluates first arrival of phase with cake (seepyrocko.cake.PhaseDef
)'vel_surface:VELOCITY'
 arrival according to surface distance / velocity [km/s]'vel:VELOCITY'
 arrival according to 3Ddistance / velocity [km/s]
Examples:
'100'
: absolute time; 100 s'{stored:P}100'
: 100 s before arrival of P phase according to stored travel time table named'P'
'{stored:Astored:B}'
: time instant of phase arrival A, or B if A is undefined for a given geometry'first{stored:Astored:B}'
: as above, but the earlier arrival of A and B is chosen, if both phases are defined for a given geometry'last{stored:Astored:B}'
: as above but the later arrival is chosen'first{stored:Astored:Bstored:C}100'
: 100 s before first out of arrivals A, B, and C

♦
phase_defs
¶ list
ofstr
objects, default:[]

♦
offset
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
offset_is_slowness
¶ bool
, default:False

♦
select
¶ builtins.str
(PhaseSelect
), default:''
Can be either
''
,'first'
, or'last'
.

class
TPDef
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Maps an arrival phase identifier to an arrival phase definition.

♦
definition
¶ str
definition of the phase in either cake syntax as defined in
pyrocko.cake.PhaseDef
, or, if prepended with an!
, as a classic phase name, or, if it is a simple number, as a constant horizontal velocity.

♦

class
Receiver
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.model.location.Location
Undocumented.

♦
codes
¶ tuple
of 3str
objects, optionalnetwork, station, and location codes

♦
Bases:
Exception

class
DiscretizedExplosionSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedSource
Undocumented.

♦
m0s
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
)

classmethod
combine
(sources, **kwargs)[source]¶ Combine several discretized source models.
Concatenenates all point sources in the given discretized
sources
. Care must be taken when using this function that the external amplitude factors and reference times of the parameterized (undiscretized) sources match or are accounted for.

♦

class
DiscretizedSFSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedSource
Undocumented.

♦
forces
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
)

classmethod
combine
(sources, **kwargs)[source]¶ Combine several discretized source models.
Concatenenates all point sources in the given discretized
sources
. Care must be taken when using this function that the external amplitude factors and reference times of the parameterized (undiscretized) sources match or are accounted for.

♦

class
DiscretizedMTSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedSource
Undocumented.

♦
m6s
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
)rows with (m_nn, m_ee, m_dd, m_ne, m_nd, m_ed)

classmethod
combine
(sources, **kwargs)[source]¶ Combine several discretized source models.
Concatenenates all point sources in the given discretized
sources
. Care must be taken when using this function that the external amplitude factors and reference times of the parameterized (undiscretized) sources match or are accounted for.

♦

class
DiscretizedPorePressureSource
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.DiscretizedSource
Undocumented.

♦
pp
¶ numpy.ndarray
(pyrocko.guts_array.Array
)

classmethod
combine
(sources, **kwargs)[source]¶ Combine several discretized source models.
Concatenenates all point sources in the given discretized
sources
. Care must be taken when using this function that the external amplitude factors and reference times of the parameterized (undiscretized) sources match or are accounted for.

♦

class
RectangularRegion
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.Region
Undocumented.

♦
lat_min
¶ float

♦
lat_max
¶ float

♦
lon_min
¶ float

♦
lon_max
¶ float

♦

class
CircularRegion
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.Region
Undocumented.

♦
lat
¶ float

♦
lon
¶ float

♦
radius
¶ float

♦

class
Config
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Green’s function store meta information.
Currently implemented
Store
configuration types are:ConfigTypeA
 cylindrical or spherical symmetry, 1D earth model, single receiver depthProblem is invariant to horizontal translations and rotations around vertical axis.
All receivers must be at the same depth (e.g. at the surface)
High level index variables:
(source_depth, receiver_distance, component)
ConfigTypeB
 cylindrical or spherical symmetry, 1D earth model, variable receiver depthSymmetries like in Type A but has additional index for receiver depth
High level index variables:
(source_depth, receiver_distance, receiver_depth, component)
ConfigTypeC
 no symmetrical constraints but fixed receiver positionsCartesian source volume around a reference point
High level index variables:
(ireceiver, source_depth, source_east_shift, source_north_shift, component)

♦
id
¶ builtins.str
(StringID
)Name of the store. May consist of upper and lowercase letters, digits, dots and underscores. The name must start with a letter.

♦
derived_from_id
¶ builtins.str
(StringID
), optionalName of the original store, if this store has been derived from another one (e.g. extracted subset).

♦
version
¶ str
, optional, default:'1.0'
Userdefined version string. Use <major>.<minor> format.

♦
modelling_code_id
¶ builtins.str
(StringID
), optionalIdentifier of the backend used to compute the store.
str
, optionalCommaseparated list of author names.
str
, optionalAuthor’s contact email address.

♦
created_time
¶ builtins.float
(pyrocko.guts.Timestamp
), optionalTime of creation of the store.

♦
regions
¶ list
ofRegion
objects, default:[]
Geographical regions for which the store is representative.

♦
scope_type
¶ builtins.str
(ScopeType
), optionalDistance range scope of the store (choices:
'global'
,'regional'
,'local'
).

♦
waveform_type
¶ builtins.str
(WaveType
), optionalWave type stored (choices:
'full waveform'
,'bodywave'
,'P wave'
,'S wave'
,'surface wave'
).

♦
nearfield_terms
¶ builtins.str
(NearfieldTermsType
), optionalInformation about the inclusion of nearfield terms in the modelling (choices:
'complete'
,'incomplete'
,'missing'
).

♦
description
¶ str
, optionalFree form textual description of the GF store.

♦
references
¶ list
ofReference
objects, default:[]
Reference list to cite the modelling code, earth model or related work.

♦
earthmodel_1d
¶ pyrocko.cake.LayeredModel
(Earthmodel1D
), optionalLayered earth model in ND (named discontinuity) format.

♦
earthmodel_receiver_1d
¶ pyrocko.cake.LayeredModel
(Earthmodel1D
), optionalReceiverside layered earth model in ND format.

♦
can_interpolate_source
¶ bool
, optionalHint to indicate if the spatial sampling of the store is dense enough for multilinear interpolation at the source.

♦
can_interpolate_receiver
¶ bool
, optionalHint to indicate if the spatial sampling of the store is dense enough for multilinear interpolation at the receiver.

♦
frequency_min
¶ float
, optionalHint to indicate the lower bound of valid frequencies [Hz].

♦
frequency_max
¶ float
, optionalHint to indicate the upper bound of valid frequencies [Hz].

♦
sample_rate
¶ float
, optionalSample rate of the GF store [Hz].

♦
factor
¶ float
, optional, default:1.0
Gain value, factored out of the stored GF samples. (may not work properly, keep at 1.0).

♦
component_scheme
¶ builtins.str
(ComponentScheme
), default:'elastic10'
GF component scheme (choices:
'elastic2'
,'elastic8'
,'elastic10'
,'elastic18'
,'elastic5'
,'poroelastic10'
).

♦
stored_quantity
¶ builtins.str
(QuantityType
), optionalPhysical quantity of stored values (choices:
'displacement'
,'velocity'
,'acceleration'
,'pressure'
,'tilt'
,'pore_pressure'
,'darcy_velocity'
,'vertical_tilt'
). If not given, a default is used based on the GF component scheme. The default for the"elastic*"
family of component schemes is"displacement"
.

♦
tabulated_phases
¶ list
ofTPDef
objects, default:[]
Mapping of phase names to phase definitions, for which travel time tables are available in the GF store.

♦
ncomponents
¶ int
, optionalNumber of GF components. Use
component_scheme
instead.

♦
uuid
¶ str
, optionalHeuristic hash value which can be used to uniquely identify the GF store for practical purposes.

♦
reference
¶ str
, optionalStore reference name composed of the store’s
id
and the first six letters of itsuuid
.

get_shear_moduli
(lat, lon, points, interpolation=None)[source]¶ Get shear moduli at given points from contained velocity model.
 Parameters
lat – surface origin for coordinate system of
points
points – NumPy array of shape
(N, 3)
, where each row is a point(north, east, depth)
, relative to origin at(lat, lon)
interpolation – interpolation method. Choose from
('nearest_neighbor', 'multilinear')
 Returns
NumPy array of length N with extracted shear moduli at each point
The default implementation retrieves and interpolates the shear moduli from the contained 1D velocity profile.

get_vs
(lat, lon, points, interpolation=None)[source]¶ Get Vs at given points from contained velocity model.
 Parameters
lat – surface origin for coordinate system of
points
points – NumPy array of shape
(N, 3)
, where each row is a point(north, east, depth)
, relative to origin at(lat, lon)
interpolation – interpolation method. Choose from
('nearest_neighbor', 'multilinear')
 Returns
NumPy array of length N with extracted shear moduli at each point
The default implementation retrieves and interpolates Vs from the contained 1D velocity profile.

get_vp
(lat, lon, points, interpolation=None)[source]¶ Get Vp at given points from contained velocity model.
 Parameters
lat – surface origin for coordinate system of
points
points – NumPy array of shape
(N, 3)
, where each row is a point(north, east, depth)
, relative to origin at(lat, lon)
interpolation – interpolation method. Choose from
('nearest_neighbor', 'multilinear')
 Returns
NumPy array of length N with extracted shear moduli at each point
The default implementation retrieves and interpolates Vp from the contained 1D velocity profile.

get_rho
(lat, lon, points, interpolation=None)[source]¶ Get rho at given points from contained velocity model.
 Parameters
lat – surface origin for coordinate system of
points
points – NumPy array of shape
(N, 3)
, where each row is a point(north, east, depth)
, relative to origin at(lat, lon)
interpolation – interpolation method. Choose from
('nearest_neighbor', 'multilinear')
 Returns
NumPy array of length N with extracted shear moduli at each point
The default implementation retrieves and interpolates rho from the contained 1D velocity profile.

class
ConfigTypeA
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.Config
Cylindrical symmetry, 1D earth model, single receiver depth
Problem is invariant to horizontal translations and rotations around vertical axis.
All receivers must be at the same depth (e.g. at the surface) High level index variables:
(source_depth, distance, component)
The
distance
is the surface distance between source and receiver points.

♦
receiver_depth
¶ float
, default:0.0
Fixed receiver depth [m].

♦
source_depth_min
¶ float
Minimum source depth [m].

♦
source_depth_max
¶ float
Maximum source depth [m].

♦
source_depth_delta
¶ float
Grid spacing of source depths [m]

♦
distance_min
¶ float
Minimum sourcereceiver surface distance [m].

♦
distance_max
¶ float
Maximum sourcereceiver surface distance [m].

♦
distance_delta
¶ float
Grid spacing of sourcereceiver surface distance [m].

class
ConfigTypeB
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.Config
Cylindrical symmetry, 1D earth model, variable receiver depth
Symmetries like in
ConfigTypeA
but has additional index for receiver depthHigh level index variables:
(source_depth, receiver_distance, receiver_depth, component)

♦
receiver_depth_min
¶ float
Minimum receiver depth [m].

♦
receiver_depth_max
¶ float
Maximum receiver depth [m].

♦
receiver_depth_delta
¶ float
Grid spacing of receiver depths [m]

♦
source_depth_min
¶ float
Minimum source depth [m].

♦
source_depth_max
¶ float
Maximum source depth [m].

♦
source_depth_delta
¶ float
Grid spacing of source depths [m]

♦
distance_min
¶ float
Minimum sourcereceiver surface distance [m].

♦
distance_max
¶ float
Maximum sourcereceiver surface distance [m].

♦
distance_delta
¶ float
Grid spacing of sourcereceiver surface distances [m].

class
ConfigTypeC
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.gf.meta.Config
No symmetrical constraints but fixed receiver positions.
Cartesian 3D source volume around a reference point
High level index variables:
(ireceiver, source_depth, source_east_shift, source_north_shift, component)

♦
source_origin
¶ pyrocko.model.location.Location
Origin of the source volume grid.

♦
source_depth_min
¶ float
Minimum source depth [m].

♦
source_depth_max
¶ float
Maximum source depth [m].

♦
source_depth_delta
¶ float
Source depth grid spacing [m].

♦
source_east_shift_min
¶ float
Minimum easting of source grid [m].

♦
source_east_shift_max
¶ float
Maximum easting of source grid [m].

♦
source_east_shift_delta
¶ float
Source volume grid spacing in east direction [m].

♦
source_north_shift_min
¶ float
Minimum northing of source grid [m].

♦
source_north_shift_max
¶ float
Maximum northing of source grid [m].

♦
source_north_shift_delta
¶ float
Source volume grid spacing in north direction [m].

class
Weighting
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Undocumented.

♦
factor
¶ float
, default:1.0

♦

class
Taper
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Undocumented.

♦
tfade
¶ float
, default:0.0

♦
shape
¶ builtins.str
(pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
), optional, default:'cos'

♦

class
WaveformType
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
Any
str
out of['dis', 'vel', 'acc', 'amp_spec_dis', 'amp_spec_vel', 'amp_spec_acc', 'envelope_dis', 'envelope_vel', 'envelope_acc']
.

class
WaveformType
(dummy) → str[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.StringChoice
Any
str
out of['dis', 'vel', 'acc', 'amp_spec_dis', 'amp_spec_vel', 'amp_spec_acc', 'envelope_dis', 'envelope_vel', 'envelope_acc']
.

class
ChannelSelection
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Undocumented.

♦
pattern
¶ SimplePattern
, optional

♦
min_sample_rate
¶ float
, optional

♦
max_sample_rate
¶ float
, optional

♦

class
StationSelection
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Undocumented.

♦
includes
¶

♦
excludes
¶

♦
distance_min
¶ float
, optional

♦
distance_max
¶ float
, optional

♦
azimuth_min
¶ float
, optional

♦
azimuth_max
¶ float
, optional

♦

class
WaveformSelection
(**kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
pyrocko.guts.Object
Undocumented.

♦
channel_selection
¶ ChannelSelection
, optional

♦
station_selection
¶ StationSelection
, optional

♦
waveform_type
¶ builtins.str
(WaveformType
), default:'dis'

♦
sample_rate
¶ float
, optional

♦